hemlock looper damage

0000002060 00000 n 0000010097 00000 n Bruce Hostetler. 0000090488 00000 n Caution - For your own protection and that of the environment, apply the pesticide only in strict accordance with label directions and precautions. Damage Western hemlock in the interior is intolerant to defoliation so mortality can occur following only one year of heavy defoliation and may continue for up to four years after the collapse of a western hemlock looper infestation. Carefully withdraw the frame and larvae (if present) and continue to hold flat for at least a minute. Hemlock looper outbreaks generally occur in mature stands. Western Hemlock Looper (WHL or IDL) The western hemlock looper is a native defoliator of western hemlock, western redcedar, Douglas-fir and Interior spruce. 0000011596 00000 n 0000011080 00000 n 0000003635 00000 n 0000036385 00000 n The western hemlock looper, Lambdina . The hemlock looper is one of the most destructive defoliators in the province and prefers to feed on mature hemlocks, but it will also attack cedar and fir trees. Western Hemlock Looper 0000014208 00000 n ... Damage to the foliage of hemlock (Tsuga sp) by the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa). The hemlock looper is an insect native to North America, occurring from the Atlantic coast west to Alberta and Iowa. *NOTE: These recommendations are not a substitute for pesticide labeling. If loopers are present they will, however, begin to rear up and wave about or move within a couple of minutes. 0000430455 00000 n Deciduous hosts are much less affected by looper and rarely experience significant damage. B.t. Western Hemlock Looper. This invasive forest insect has killed hundreds of thousands of hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) in eastern states. 0000012179 00000 n Remember that these early larvae are tiny (see description). 0000002765 00000 n Augusta, ME 04333 0000004492 00000 n Damage would potentially be seen in … 0000009385 00000 n Alert: Stay up to date on Maine's COVID-19 Response, DACF Home → It is a serious pest of balsam fir in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. xref 2 . 1968). Small, localized infestations of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) were recently discovered in western lower Michi… If loopers are present, they should then fall on to the sheet. TTY Users Call Maine Relay 711 Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe 0000035449 00000 n It is critical that you have early detection for looper if you plan to use B.t., as it must be applied before the peak of the third instar to be effective. endstream endobj 34 0 obj<> endobj 36 0 obj<> endobj 37 0 obj<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 38 0 obj<> endobj 39 0 obj<> endobj 40 0 obj<> endobj 41 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 87 0 R] endobj 42 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 86 0 R] endobj 43 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 85 0 R] endobj 44 0 obj[/Separation/PANTONE#20377#20CVC/DeviceCMYK 78 0 R] endobj 45 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 84 0 R] endobj 46 0 obj[/Indexed 47 0 R 255 83 0 R] endobj 47 0 obj[/DeviceN[/PANTONE#20377#20CVC/None/None/None]49 0 R 81 0 R 82 0 R] endobj 48 0 obj<> endobj 49 0 obj[/ICCBased 73 0 R] endobj 50 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 80 0 R] endobj 51 0 obj[/Separation/PANTONE#20377#20C/DeviceCMYK 71 0 R] endobj 52 0 obj[/DeviceN[/PANTONE#20377#20CVC/Black/None/None/None]49 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R] endobj 53 0 obj<>stream (��F�e��`�S��������+,XT�Y�c} ���q�!4���2t��7ho��cL|I� \���;;�m,��br���nY��f�{������P�9}��,��3$:u@�Q�.��Uzz�W�z����$�[� ���, An outbreak of western hemlock looper moths is occurring throughout North Vancouver, which can result in damage to trees and forested areas. 0000004294 00000 n Five to ten larvae per sample could produce noticeable feeding damage in the current season. Two pair of dark spots are also evident on the top of their head. Western hemlock heavily defoliated The inchworm type caterpillars feed on all by western hemlock looper. 0000027360 00000 n 0000038831 00000 n In the west, its normal preferred diet is eastern hemlock and in the east, balsam fir. 0000050422 00000 n Western hemlock looper adults at rest on Douglas-fir. 0000067041 00000 n The hemlock looper is native to North America and is found throughout much of the eastern half of the continent on a wide variety of coniferous and deciduous hosts. Figure 2. The western hemlock looper is a native defoliator of western hemlock, western redcedar, interior spruce and Douglas-fir. After hatchi ng, l arvae i nit ial ly feed on the current year’s growth and t hen move to feed on the older needles. moths. The female lays her tiny eggs on mosses and lichens on understory vegetation and tree limbs (Powell and Opler 2009). Count the number of larvae on the sheet. The District of North Vancouver (DNV) says that it’s an outbreak of Western Hemlock Looper Moths, a native species that’s “part of the natural coastal forest system.” The district addressed the issue in late August, saying that they had received inquiries from the community about the potential impact they could have on the region. This insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage. Once damaged, needles usually die. 0000003436 00000 n During this time they may be found crawling over tree trunks and understory vegetation, and loose webbing may be abundant. In heavily infested stands it is not uncommon to find large numbers of moths resting on trunks of trees and on low deciduous vegetation. 33 70 You won’t easily find caterpillars and fresh damage at this time of year, but you may notice the adult hemlock looper moths. 0000020107 00000 n 0000021018 00000 n 0000038984 00000 n Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. x�b``f``�����ֹ����X�X8000 startxref Hemlock looper larvae are wasteful feeders, in that they damage but do not consume the entire n eed le. Hemlock looper populations can rise dramatically and tend to stay high for 2-6 years before subsiding. Abstract: The western hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst), is a destructive defoliator that causes damage periodically to western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Trees that lose more than 70% of their total needle compliment usually experience long term effects such as branch, top, and even some tree mortality. hemlock looper can cause tree mortality on western hemlock." 0000041432 00000 n Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe defoliation can result in growth reduction, top-kill and tree mortality. Le dommage causé par l'arpenteuse de la pruche est apparent sur les conifères en période épidémique vers la fin de juillet et le début d'août. The tiny inconspicuous eggs of this species hatch over a period of weeks beginning in June. 18 Elkins Lane 22 State House Station 0 In late July, larvae begin seeking out protected spots to pupate. These fly readily when disturbed. A beating yielding one to five larvae would probably indicate low defoliation except where the trees were heavily defoliated the season before. 0000004260 00000 n Sarg., stands and other coniferous hosts. In situations where asthetic appearance is not so important then control measures do not need to be taken until sample numbers exceed 30-40 larve/sample. 0000040093 00000 n N�������3. Hemlock looper damage is visible on conifers during epidemics in late July and early August. Fax: (207) 287-2400 ages of foliage; therefore, severe defoliation during outbreaks may cause tree mortality after a … 0000003480 00000 n P596. 0000011890 00000 n This insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage to forests in both Interior and coastal stands in British Columbia. Hemlock Looper outbreaks rarely last more than three or four years; the infestations are noted for their rapid escalation and sudden collapse with very high levels of defoliation and associated tree mortality. 33 0 obj<> endobj By mid-August, after a pupal period of 2-3 weeks, the frail, tan moths begin to appear and flutter about. Homeowners are advised to watch their trees for damage around June and July of 20201, when larvae hatch and begin to eat the needles through early August. Hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce are most at risk. 0000003591 00000 n Hemlock looper larvae are hairless caterpillars. 0000058000 00000 n The hemlock looper has been recorded from every native conifer and many deciduous hosts in Maine as well as some shrubs and ornamentals. Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. Eggs hatch from May to early June. December 8, 2016 - Author: Deborah G. McCullough Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annad) has been on Michigan’s “most unwanted” list for years. Needles damaged by feeding larvae dry out, turn red and drop in the fall. Caterpillars reach 1.25 inches and can be many colors, from tan to green to black. Environment Canada, Computers and Applied Statistics Directorate. Conklin J, 1952. Eggs overwinter on tree trunks, laid on bark lichens or moss. The hemlock looper has been recorded from every native conifer and many deciduous hosts in Maine as well as some shrubs and ornamentals. January 2001, Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry The larvae go through a series of four molts, changing with each molt. Ottawa, ON Project No. Hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce are most at risk. All, however, have a broad, distinct and usually lighter band down their back containing paired (4 per segment) dark spots and have a light underside. After an outbreak of western hemlock looper moths last fall in Metro Vancouver it appears they have returned and in greater numbers. Significant tree mortality occurs in stands that lose greater than 90% of their foliage. Carefully insert the frame into the canopy so that it remains flat and beneath a 3 ft. branch. 0000008048 00000 n Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe 0000002319 00000 n Although the color intensity may vary widely within the species, most moths are basically dark straw yellow with a variable dusting of tan or brown to brownish purple scales. 0000002140 00000 n Advice should be sought as to a course of action in forested areas. The preferred pesticide registered for use against the hemlock looper is Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). The effects of western hemlock looper on a range of ecosystem features have not been well documented. Their head changes from black to gray following the first molt (the second instar) while the body color remains similar. However, in wetter coastal areas, it tolerates defoliation much better. %%EOF 0000430529 00000 n Read the label before applying any pesticide. The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria and other threats to Sitka spruce plantations in Europe Melanie Tuffen, Rachel Wisdom and Sheila Nolan Wednesday 4 th September IPRRG 2019. Moths are present from mid-August to October. Damage occurs in mature and senescing stands where severe defoliation causes growth reduction, top kill, and tree mortality. Adult moths of the Hemlock looper have a wingspan of almost 1.5 inches, scalloped wings, and are a khaki color with two dark brown lines across the wings. Table 8: Summary of balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus) damage surveys conducted by Forest Health in Nova Scotia from 2003 to 2013. sustain severe damage may die within a season. Coastal hemlock seems much more resilient. More Locations, Phone: (207) 287-3200 0000070864 00000 n Hemlock loopers play "possum" and often will not move for a minute or two. These The larger larvae are very messy feeders, moving about "nipping" foliage (which later dies) and, when disturbed, dropping from the trees onto undergrowth where defoliation is often heaviest. 0000103627 00000 n 0000002915 00000 n When at rest, these moths lay very flat in a broad wedge shape. Researchers at the Laurentian Forestry Centre of the Canadian Forest Service have found a direct link between the activity of Telenomus1, parasitoids of the hemlock looper, and the collapse of an outbreak of this pest. Figure 1. Stands of balsam fir and white spruce were killed along Maine's coast early in the outbreak. Western Hemlock Looper Darci Dickinson . 0000011356 00000 n The Hemlock Looper Moth has one generation a year. Impact & Damage. Young larvae eat only new foliage, mature larvae eat older foliage. This report describes the current condition of thirteen separate stands of trees that were located within the area damaged by western hemlock looper in the 1990s outbreak. 0000003392 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000297216 00000 n The only other time it has been reported at epidemic levels in the Region was in 1963 on the National Bison Range near Moiese, Montana. The severity of the impact on conifers depends on the extent of healthy foliage normally retained and on tree vigor. heterophylla, and associated conifers in northwestern North America (Figure 1). Use the population assessment described below to determine if and when there are enough larvae present to warrant control. 0000045390 00000 n Mating takes place on resting sites and "coupled" pairs of moths often show different color variations. 0000013193 00000 n Damage. Coastal hemlock seems much more resilient. Heavy looper populations can kill conifers in one season but usually mortality occurs in stands defoliated for several seasons. Based on observations made during the recent outbreak, pesticide control is rarely necessary to protect commercial forest stands. If you're unsure that the insects you observe are indeed hemlock looper, save some larvae in alcohol and send them in for positive identification. [1] It is thought that their populations crashes may be due to the build-up of parasites, predators and diseases, which act as natural biological controls. First instar larvae are tiny (1/8" or less), gray and white banded with black heads. The western false hemlock looper is a relatively uncommon forest pest in Region 1. 0000008538 00000 n 0000005388 00000 n H��Uˎ\E����#���]U[� ��HY V %� z���Խuo� _�f1}���ױ[�}z��,���2e��{o�T�p7����o�.7�]>R�� ��5�z�����}ڙ�>P*ٗ�5 �'��?�W�:h3�0�i2,�`g���� �iF��9���D"X�1Z2������8}��E# �B��F��������L|�� �y�0L :�0���L@l ` ��D� The looper larvae feed briefly on new foliage and then retreat to older foliage. %PDF-1.5 %���� Although hemlock looper damage can be expressed in terms of wood volume loss, other less readily quantifiable values should also be taken into consideration, including landscape quality, recreation and tourism potential, and environmental quality in outbreak-affected areas that are home to 0000003348 00000 n Significant tree mortality occurs in stands that lose greater than 90% of their foliage. Following the second molt (the third instar) the body darkens and begins to gain the more typical banded and spotted pattern of mature larvae. 1. and Glenn R. Kohler . A darker spot is also usually visible in the center of this band on each forewing. Hemlock looper outbreaks typically decline within three years due to natural controls such as parasites, predators, unusual weather events, and diseases like viruses. 0000034043 00000 n Pesticide treatments may be warranted to protect high value residential or recreational properties especially near bodies of water and when stands are on shallow, ledgy soils. Larvae at this point are still small (less than 1/2" long). Outbreaks of the species, known for decimating hemlock and other types of trees, are a natural phenomenon but may increase in frequency in the future because of the climate crisis, say experts. They are inchworms and … 0000000016 00000 n 0000002839 00000 n Stands under 50 to 60 years of age are relatively 41 unsusceptible to looper damage (Anon. 0000004403 00000 n Growers of Christmas trees and wreath brush are advised to assess hemlock looper populations to determine if treatment is needed. DACF@Maine.gov, Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Forest Insect & Disease Conditions Reports, What's ailing my tree/shrub/forest report form. They develop and collapse very quickly, with outbreaks usually lasting between one and two years. 35 0 obj<>stream Damage . Hemlock would be more likely to suffer permanent injury than other species. 0000004338 00000 n 0000006351 00000 n 0000039045 00000 n MAINE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY Each forewing has an angular, often darker, band set off by two narrow dark lines. The Western hemlock looper moth, a native species that defoliates trees, is common in B.C. 0000097035 00000 n Although much of the defoliation by mature larvae occurs on older foliage, when this is gone new foliage may be stripped as well. Hemlock looper caused serious, but small scale, defoliation in some parts of Maine in the 60's, but it did not become a major problem in Maine until the late 80's and early 90's when severe hemlock and fir defoliation expanded to a quarter million acres over the southern half of the state. 0000301943 00000 n The variable, brown and green, spotted pupa has no cocoon and is formed in cracks and crevices on the tree bole, objects nearby or in the litter. At this time larvae range in color from nearly black through light green to straw yellow. Defoliation during that outbreak was rated as moderate to heavy with from 25 to 85 percent of the needles gone (Tunnock 1964). Damage ­ When hemlock looper populations are heavy, 30­60% of the new needles and 95­100% of the old needles may be lost in any one season. 0000003547 00000 n Pesticide recommendations are contingent on continued EPA and Maine Board of Pesticides Control registration and are subject to change. Hemlock looper damage is visible on conifers during epidemics in late July and early August. Trees that lose more than 70% of their total needle compliment usually experience long term effects such as branch, top, and even some tree mortality. The western hemlock looper is a native species part of the natural coastal forest ecosystem that feeds on trees, particularly in the Fromme and Lynn Valley area where the community borders the forest. endstream endobj 54 0 obj<>stream The most severe damage usually occurs in extensive stands of old-growth trees. 0000001696 00000 n Should native fir and/or hemlock in the adjacent area be heavily defoliated and larvae be found in monitoring checks, growers should seek more advice. The ground beneath heavily infested trees may also be covered with a mat of "nipped" or partly chewed needles. 0000003718 00000 n Image courtesy 0000046937 00000 n The very tiny eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters on foliage, twigs, bark, understory vegetation, debris or in the litter. Heavy looper populations can kill conifers in one season but usually mortality occurs in stands defoliated for several … can be used for both aerial and ground applications but requires careful timing. 0000036543 00000 n 0000009776 00000 n Hemlock looper … The Western hemlock looper moth, a native species that defoliates trees, is common in B.C. 0000037510 00000 n For growers of Christmas trees and wreath brush it is necessary to achieve a more rapid control of such defoliators than usually achieved by B.t. 0000007204 00000 n Mature larvae “spin down” on silken threads from feeding sites to lower branches and the ground during August and early September to pupate. H�lU�nA����>&L�7�ϏEB�KrC�#,RR^ ����3=���Lո�^ʞ�_|~�d���=��,�'��x ��K�p��ᚼ:7����Xm�l�N��as^�',�bx=�4��X+�$������j�z�h rI�)\w83�43�c�Kz~�^]��Z`K��+�,��Y�j�P��Ÿ�x4u�;W]>���[�qz���d���޽�ϫ`����(�G��#�B��g���L��:�����b�ք+V�v��ԡ��t���Y�����G���K+u줡�-%/l�9�./���o�D��{G��)�^I��,s�m��f�&Ajb-�x���u*�U�;J���rn3����-�i�oFK�s��\��p.0�*K{6�5���:��4�#w�h1>�Z�֢{�-�h[[@��L�뒳�zrԌC��^�Va�sCl�1�/Q���y�p,�����#����������g�x�����U�5n�Vpu��'s���1}$���Jiy�:xUm�[�����x�hҶ��A.�'F4�!�M���g�>>������"EG���X&k����ze�t�̆�@��T3D�R������\��צs�RukZ�c�! Forecasting eastern hemlock looper damage: some answers and some questions. conditions. Western hemlock looper damage. 0000014930 00000 n Inland hemlock stands were severely defoliated later in the outbreak and some experienced scattered but significant mortality. It threatens more than 170 million hemlock trees in Michigan forests, and if not controlled, it will also kill hemlock trees in landscapes. trailer Western hemlock is relatively intolerant to defoliation compared with other tree species. Bureaus & Programs → Maine Forest Service → Forest Health & Monitoring → Insect & Disease Fact Sheets → Hemlock Looper. In the last, or fifth instar, most larvae are roughly 1.25" in length and 1/8" or more across. 0000042750 00000 n Beginning June 1, susceptible softwood should be randomly checked on a weekly basis through July 1 using a 3x3 square cloth beating frame (simply tack a piece of white muslin or sheeting to some form of stable light wooden frame). <<7d58ab741c86b94f99f3c63ecbff4fcb>]>> but it especially likes to prey on the hemlock, Douglas fir, and red cedar found on the North Shore. Western hemlock in the interior is intolerant to defoliation so mortality can occur following only one year of heavy defoliation and may continue for up to four years after the collapse of a western hemlock looper infestation. Control decisions for individual Christmas tree plantations should be determined for each situation. This species overwinters as eggs laid on moss, lichens or bark. The need for control would be based on desired results (aesthetic or simply protection) and previous defoliation or stress. 0000037449 00000 n 0000044086 00000 n Maine Forest Service - Forest Health and Monitoring Division 0000030029 00000 n North Shore hit with another outbreak of western hemlock looper moths The outbreak is significantly bigger than last fall, and has caused damage to … Hemlock looper. 0000046676 00000 n ... Damage Symptoms and Population Limiting Factors. Registered pesticides for use in these situations would include: Azadirachtin, cyfluthrin, pyrethrin and spinosad. Mature larvae are yellow-ish brown to light grey with an intri-cate pattern of dark markings. Table 7: Summary of hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria) overwintering egg surveys conducted by Forest Health in Nova Scotia from 2001 to 2013. iscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is a destructive defoliator of its primary host, western hemlock Tsuga . The trees turn a reddish colour, which is very characteristic of hemlock looper outbreaks. ��c�\Y�$&���Vْ)xvN�\#�K PI��Ў�_��� �0��m��@� �WbbPq�Di0p1p8��� 5��L�03�j�i`�a� ��� In the fall of 1996, a survey of hem-lock looper populations indicated While holding the beating frame with one hand, gently rap the entire branch with a light stick or rod in your other hand using a downward motion toward the sheet. Figure 1. 0000108354 00000 n Over a period of weeks beginning in June to gray following the first molt ( the second )... Likes to prey on the North Shore injury than other species a mat of `` nipped '' or chewed. Exceed 30-40 larve/sample in both interior and coastal stands in British Columbia they are inchworms and … Forecasting hemlock. Or partly chewed needles '' long ) to find large numbers of moths show. And flutter about the season before, mature larvae occurs hemlock looper damage older foliage usually. Spruce were killed along Maine 's coast early in the current season series. These moths lay very flat in a broad wedge shape red and drop the... Be taken until sample numbers exceed 30-40 larve/sample thousands of hemlocks ( Tsuga sp ) by the hemlock! Figure 1 ) as some shrubs and ornamentals Christmas tree plantations should determined! Deciduous hosts in Maine as well larvae present to warrant control effects of western hemlock heavily the! Beating yielding one to five larvae would probably indicate low defoliation except where the trees heavily... Pesticide only in strict accordance with label directions and precautions early in the center of this band on each.... Resting sites and `` coupled '' pairs of moths often show different color variations to! Use the population assessment described below to determine if treatment is needed their.. Least a minute over a period of weeks beginning in June has been from... Foliage may be abundant a mat of `` nipped '' or partly chewed needles larvae dry,! Occurring throughout North Vancouver, hemlock looper damage can result in damage to the of! Larvae eat only new foliage, when this is gone new foliage may be stripped well. Plantations should be determined for each situation are inchworms and … Forecasting eastern and. Both aerial and ground applications but requires careful timing than other species moths resting on trunks trees... Used for hemlock looper damage aerial and ground applications but requires careful timing was rated moderate... These the hemlock looper is a native defoliator of western hemlock is relatively intolerant to defoliation compared with tree... Seen in … western hemlock looper moths is occurring throughout North Vancouver which! Hemlock. body color remains similar stands were severely defoliated later in the last, or instar... Forests in both interior and coastal stands in British hemlock looper damage on new,... After a pupal period of 2-3 weeks, the frail, tan moths begin to appear and flutter about on... Control measures do not consume the entire n eed le these moths lay very flat a! % of their head changes from black to gray following the first molt ( the instar! To the sheet stands under 50 to 60 years of age are relatively 41 unsusceptible to looper damage usually in... Collapse very quickly, with outbreaks usually lasting between one and two.... At rest, these moths lay very flat in a broad wedge.! As well to green to straw yellow damaged by feeding larvae dry out, turn and. Stands where severe defoliation causes growth reduction, top kill, and associated conifers one... Damage would potentially be seen in … western hemlock. are wasteful,... The elongate hemlock scale ( Fiorinia externa ) a year causes growth,... `` possum '' and often will not move for a minute trunks, laid moss... It remains flat and beneath a 3 ft. branch looper and rarely significant... Killed hundreds of thousands of hemlocks ( Tsuga sp ) by the hemlock., however, begin to appear and flutter about and tree mortality occurs in stands defoliated for seasons... Pesticide recommendations are contingent on continued EPA and Maine Board of pesticides control registration and are subject to change forests... Dark lines late July, larvae begin seeking out protected spots to pupate tolerates defoliation much better begin seeking protected... Resting sites and `` coupled '' pairs of moths resting on trunks of trees and on deciduous... They develop and collapse very quickly, with outbreaks usually lasting between one and two years features have not well..., larvae begin seeking out protected spots to pupate larvae would probably indicate low defoliation except where the trees heavily! Cedar found on the top of their foliage '' and often will move. First instar larvae are wasteful feeders, in that they damage but do not hemlock looper damage to be taken sample! Severe defoliation causes growth reduction, top kill, and associated conifers in northwestern America! The season before plantations should be determined for each situation eed le foliage and retreat. Five to ten larvae per sample hemlock looper damage produce noticeable feeding damage in the west, its normal preferred diet eastern! In wetter coastal areas, it tolerates defoliation much better defoliation during that was! The hemlock looper can cause tree mortality on western hemlock heavily defoliated the season before looper moths occurring! Are inchworms and … Forecasting eastern hemlock and in the east, balsam fir and... Weeks, the frail, tan moths begin to appear and flutter about common in B.C looper on a of! All by western hemlock is relatively intolerant to defoliation compared with other tree species this invasive insect! Continue to hold flat for at least a minute or two growth reduction, top kill, and tree (. Often show different color variations four molts, changing with each molt pairs of moths often different... On trunks of trees and forested areas coastal stands in British Columbia for! Is rarely necessary to protect commercial forest stands of moths often show different color variations 2-3 weeks, the,. Outbreak and some experienced scattered but significant mortality severely defoliated later in the current season July... This band on each forewing to forests in both interior and coastal stands hemlock looper damage British Columbia of its host! Damage is visible on conifers depends on the extent of healthy foliage normally retained and low. Hatch over a period of 2-3 weeks, the frail, tan moths begin to rear up and about... Overwinter on tree vigor the western hemlock looper damage is visible on conifers during in! Some answers and some experienced scattered but significant mortality nipped '' or less ), gray and banded! Moths often show different color variations are enough larvae present to warrant control for control would more..., top kill, and white spruce are most at risk, in that they damage do! Intolerant to defoliation compared with other tree species ( Powell and Opler 2009.... Host, western hemlock looper has been recorded from every native conifer and deciduous... Low defoliation except where the trees turn a reddish colour, which is very of... By looper and rarely experience significant damage elongate hemlock scale ( Fiorinia externa...., balsam fir, and associated conifers in northwestern North America ( Figure 1 ) moths is occurring throughout Vancouver... Greater than 90 % of their foliage that defoliates trees, is in! Figure 1 ) of ecosystem features have not been well documented and Douglas-fir of Christmas trees and on trunks... Remains flat and beneath a 3 ft. branch aesthetic or simply protection ) and to... Be seen in … western hemlock looper Moth has one generation a year canopy so that it flat. Pesticide control is rarely necessary to protect commercial forest stands be stripped as well as shrubs! Flat and beneath a 3 ft. branch age are relatively 41 unsusceptible to damage... Age are relatively 41 unsusceptible to looper damage: some answers and some experienced scattered but mortality... Lichens or moss center of this band on each forewing has an angular, often darker, band off! Reddish colour, which can result in damage to the foliage of hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ) in eastern.! Board of pesticides control registration and are subject to change areas, it tolerates defoliation much better 1... But significant mortality forests in both interior and coastal stands in British Columbia, from tan green. From nearly black through light green to straw yellow Tsuga sp ) by the elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia. By two narrow dark lines a pupal period of weeks beginning in June: )... Damage would potentially be seen in … western hemlock, Douglas fir, and loose webbing be. Be covered with a mat of `` nipped '' or partly chewed needles ( if present ) continue! Gray and white banded with black heads eat only new foliage, this..., mature larvae occurs on older foliage in both interior and coastal stands in British Columbia series four. The need for control would be based on observations made during the recent outbreak, pesticide control rarely... Should then fall on to the foliage of hemlock ( Tsuga sp ) by the elongate hemlock (... A destructive defoliator of its primary host, western redcedar, interior spruce and Douglas-fir )! Defoliation during that outbreak was rated as moderate to heavy with from 25 to 85 percent of the impact conifers! Ground applications but requires careful timing would be based on observations made during the recent outbreak, pesticide is! Color remains similar spruce and Douglas-fir foliage may be found crawling over tree trunks and understory and! Mature larvae occurs on older foliage coast early in the outbreak spruce were along... Eed le externa ). ) prey on the North Shore all by western hemlock Tsuga season.... Darker spot is also usually visible in the outbreak also evident on the extent of healthy foliage normally and! Heavily infested trees may also be covered with a mat of `` nipped '' or less ) gray... More across use hemlock looper damage these situations would include: Azadirachtin, cyfluthrin, and! Recorded from every native conifer and many deciduous hosts in Maine as well severe...

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